Name Of Department: 

Department of Animal & Environmental Biology


Name Of Ag.Head Of Department:

Dr. I. F. Vincent-Akpu


Contact Email:


Contact Phone Number(s):  



The Department of Animal and Environmental Biology originated from the Zoology programme in the then School of Biological Sciences at the inception of the University of Port Harcourt in 1975. In 1982, the Zoology programme was elevated to the status of a full-fledged Department as the Schools System with programmes transmuted to the Faculty System with departments. However, with the establishment of the Faculty of Science from the fusion of the Schools of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences in the 1983/1984 session, the new Department of Zoology was structured to harbour four distinct units as follows:
(i) Fisheries and Hydrobiology
(ii) Animal Physiology
(iii) Parasitology and
(iv) Entomology.
These Units which are major areas of research in Zoology became the areas of interest of the young lecturers who went for staff development coupled with the staff strength at the senior level, the Department became the first from the defunct School of Biological Sciences to be accredited for the graduate programme in 1983/84 session.
In the 1998/99 session, the Department proposed a change of name to “ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY” and was restructured into five-component units as follows:
I. Animal Health and Physiology
II. Entomology and Pest Management
III. Environmental Biology
IV. Fisheries and Hydrobiology and
V. Parasitology
Undergraduate Programmes
The undergraduate courses in the Department are designed and structured in such a way that before the First Semester of the third year, students take general courses with their colleagues from other Departments in the Faculty, the College of Health Sciences and the entire University. These include: Faculty of Science courses (FSB); other Department courses – Plant Science and Biotechnology (PSB), Microbiology (MCB), Biochemistry (BCH), Chemistry (CHM), Physics (PHY), Computer Science (CSC), Mathematics (MTH); University Courses – General Studies (GES), Community Service (FCS2CI).
First semester of year three, they will take courses from the five-component of the department to have full appreciation of the aspects of animal and environmental biology.  After these courses, they go for the Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) for 6 months where hands-on experiments in a professional setting boost their understanding of the discipline of their choice based on their abilities and likes or dislikes.
Likewise In the fourth year, the students take their courses from the five-component units which they must have selected therefore boosting their employability. However, where needed our students take courses from allied departments in the University to complement the knowledge and skills content of their respective discipline.
Post-Graduate Programmes
The Department offers PGD in animal and environmental biolgy and M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Animal Health and Physiology, Environmental Entomology and Pest Management, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Environmental Biology and Conservation Science, Fisheries and Hydrobiology, Environmental Parasitology, Public Health Parasitology, in the past four years, over 200 M.Sc. and 100 Ph.D. candidates have successfully completed their programme.
The Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, in line with the vision of the University of Port Harcourt,
1. Aims to be ranked among the best in Africa in its teaching, research innovation and knowledge transfer.
2. Offers training of a standard that would enable the graduates build further upon their knowledge and skills, thereby preparing them for independent careers in areas of Parasitology, Entomology, Pest Management, Animal Physiology, Animal Health, hydrobiology, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ecology and Environmental Biology.
3.Contributes to National development, Self-reliance or Entrepreneurship and Unity through the advancement and propagation of knowledge in the field of biological studies particularly, pest control services, aquaculture, parasitology, environmental monitoring and assessment and a host of others.
The objective of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology is to contribute to the overall academic objectives of the University which is
The Department hopes to achieve these objectives by:
1) Improving the quality of teaching, learning and research.
2) Providing quality administration that is responsible to staff and students’ needs.
3) Applying current technology in teaching, knowledge transfer and research
4) Building a viable Departmental e-library and information database.
The programme is based on the philosophy of providing students with basic knowledge of the science of Zoology.  Initially, emphasis was placed more on the traditional teaching of taxonomy, diversity, evolution, morphology, and ecology of animals. Subsequently, distinct Units became recognizable as major areas of research interest of Lecturers which provides students with a unique window to any units:Entomology, Parasitology, animal Physiology, Fisheries and Hydrobiology.  The growth of these units led to inter- and intra-departmental research interests.  Consequently, the department changed its name to “ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY “effective from 1998/99 session, with five option areas as follows:
(i) Animal Health and Physiology
(ii) Entomology and Pest Management
(iii) Environmental Biology
(iii) Fisheries and Hydrobiology and
(iii) Parasitology
The departmental focus is on our graduate’s career; over 90% of our students are in employment or further study. Opportunities for a graduate of Animal and Environmental Biology are available in Health, Safety and Environmental Management (HSE) sector of most industries, including the oil companies. Our graduates also find jobs in Conservation, Pest Management, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) consultancy and practice. Their services are essential in Research Centers, Agricultural Extension services, Veterinary services and Animal Husbandry, Parasitology, Drug Testing and Development in Pharmaceutical Industries. They can manage and setup their personal Environmental consultancy, Fish Farms and Aquaculture, Opportunities also exist in Customs services, Immigration Services, and the Forensic Units of Security Agencies and Investigative Outfits. Our graduates can also work in Disease Control Agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations concerned with Health, Water and Agriculture.  Some who have access to investment capital have been successful as private consultants in animal production: Rabbitry, Honey production and “Grass-cutter” Farming, Aquaculture, and. Our graduates who continue for postgraduate studies may ultimately work the university or in International Organizations (WHO, FAO, IAEA, etc.)
The  programme is based on the philosophy of providing students with  basic knowledge  of the science of Zoology.  Initially, emphasis was placed more on the traditional teaching of  taxonomy, diversity evolution morphology, and ecology of animals.  Subsequently, distinct Units became recognizable as  major areas of research interest of the Lecturers.  These include Entomology, Parasitology, Physiology, Fisheries and Hydrobiology.  The growth of these units led to inter-unit, and intra-departmental research interests.  Consequently, the  department changed its name to “ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY’ effective from 1998/99 session, with five areas as follows.
(I) Animal Health and Physiology,
(ii) Entomology and Pest Management,
(iii) Parasitology,
(iv) Fisheries and Hydrobiology, and
(v) Environmental Biology.
The shift from basic  Zoology activities and the growth and diversification of the various units were in response to community, national, and international expectations and needs.  The shift is also part of our contribution to the overall academic objectives of the University.
The B.Sc (Hons) Degree Programme
The Department of Animal Environmental Biology (AEB) runs a 4 year undergraduate degree Programme leading to the award of Bachelor of Science Degree in Animal and Environmental Biology with options in Animal Health and Physiology, Entomology and Pest Management, Environmental Biology, Fisheries and Hydrobiology, and Parasitology. Students admitted to the programme in the first year concentrate mostly on general courses in Biology, Physics, Chemistry, and other Faculty courses.  They begin to incorporate AEB courses in the second year, and almost exclusively AEB courses in the third and fourth years.  Beginning from the first semester of the fourth year the student is assigned to any of the special options:
Summary of Special research Options/interests:
Entomology and Pest Management   
Deals with the diversity of insects and related group: mites and ticks (Acarology), spiders, scorpions; etc. (Arachnology) and their relationship (beneficial  and injurious) to  man.  It incorporates the management of pest (including rodents, birds, e.t.c.  of agricultural veterinary and medical importance and stored products (grains, timber, hides, skins etc.   The emphasis is on integrated pest management (IPM), a system that utilizes all suitable techniques in a compatible manner to reduce pest populations and maintain them at levels below those causing economic injury.  Recent trends in the discipline, including forensic Entomology in Criminal Investigations.  Cultural entomology, Remote Sensing, Geo-statistics and geographic Information systems (GIS) in Entomology, etc are covered.
Animal Health and Physiology:    
This option deals with function of the animal system in health and disease states, molecular biology and its applications, and the effect of the environment on animal production.  The option also teaches entrepreneurial skills as grasscutter farming, rabbitry and laboratory animal production for schools, colleges and research institutes.  The main thrust is self- reliance, but graduates will find useful positions in agricultural research institutes, drug testing establishments and animal production centres.  Tests of substances (man-made (Toxicology) or natural (Toxinology)) on animals are sometimes also extrapolated to humans.
It deals in a comprehensive study of human, plants and animals parasites, their relevance in diseases and their management and control.  The option includes courses in general and applied parasitology.  It aims at providing the basic training necessary for diagnosis, prevention and control of parasitic infections, as well as implementation of disease control programmes with emphasis on tropical Nigerian setting.  On completion of the programme, the successful student would be highly marketable in an expanding area of employment in the Primary health System.  Research Institutes, and Pharmaceutical Company laboratories and in Agriculture.
Fisheries and Hydrobiology 
This option deals with Limmological assessment of water bodies and studies on fish biology, conservation, farming and economic aspect of fish processing, preservation, /and marketing.  This area emphasizes research in fish production and aquaculture practices.  The preservation, conservation and management of aquatic living resources are the main thrust of this option. On completion of the programme, the successful student would be highly marketable in an expanding area of employment or setting up their own businesses.
Environmental Biology 
the option involves a comprehensive study of the environment, management of animal populations, conservation of biodiversity,  modeling,  and establishment of ecosystems through the use of microcosms and macrocosms.  Some of the aspects of covered include:  Ecotoxicology/ Toxinology monitoring of environmental pollution; Bioremediation; Recombinant DNA technology; Conservation of populations in fisheries, forestry, wildlife, and pests; Conservation of populations and communities: Single species, nature Reserves; Relationships between applied ecology and social sciences; Land and water reclamation, restoration, water  management (Landfill Ecology, Compositing, etc) and sewage treatment.
Departmental Admission Requirements
The basic entrance requirement into the Bachelor’s degree programme of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology is the Senior Secondary Certificate/West African School Certificate General Certificate O-Level or equivalent with credits in Five subjects including English Language.  Biology,  Chemistry and Physics and Mathematics obtained at not more than two sittings.   In addition, the prospective student is also required to obtain a score in JAMB or any other  examination conducted by a body approved by the University of Port Harcourt, not below the cut-Off point prescribed by the Department in a given prospective year.
Registration for Undergraduate Courses:
Courses in the undergraduate degree programme in the Department are normally registered for in the first week of the academic year.  The second week of the first semester of the academic year is a late registration period but students are advised that late registration attracts a surcharge penalty.
In registering courses for any given year, students must ensure that;
1. they register all previously failed courses in which their  respective programmes require a  pass
2. they meet the prescribed requirements (if any) for each course  registered.
3. the total Credit units registered are not less than 15 and not  more than 24 per semester.
4. The students will comply with provisions 1 – 3 above on a special registration card which will contain one of their  passport size photograph called “photocard”.  The photocard which shall be provided by the department shall be duly endorsed by head of department and laminated by the student. One copy of the photocard shall be in the custody of the departmental examination officer, while another copy shall be with the  student.
Any student who have registered could collect the semester timetable which is normally released at least two weeks, before the first day of lectures. Course outline based on the approved course description is made available to students free of charge at the commencement of lectures. Students are, however advised to obtain a copy of the departmental handbook which contains the outline of all courses taken by students registered in degree programmes in the department.
Instructions in the undergraduate programme of the Department involve taught courses, seminars and practical classes, which run over the academic year which is divided into first and second Semesters of approximately sixteen lecturing weeks each.  Each courses carries from 1 to 3 Credit Units and a duration of one semester.  A Unit of Credit for a course is the credit unit; one credit unit is when a class meets for one hour every week for one semester in a lecture or tutorial, or for 3 hours every week in a laboratory or field practical.
No student is permitted to register for less than 15 or more than 24 Credit units in  any semester.  The usual course load of a student in the Department is between 15 and 23 Credit Units per semester.  A student in the Department must pass a minimum of 122 units before he or she can graduate.
GES101.1 Communication Skills in English
The course seeks to develop in the student well-informed attitude to the English language and to equip them with the knowledge of English communication and study skill that will facilitate their work in the University and beyond (3 Units)
PSB 101.1 General Biology
Characteristics of life, investigations in Biology; the scientific method; the substance or life; the unit of life (including methods of study); activities of cells;  The control of metabolic activities; basic principles of inheritance (genetics); evolution (3 Credits)
PHY 101.1 Introduction to Mechanics and Properties of Matter
Topic to be covered in the course include the following: motion in one plane, work and energy, conservation laws; collision; solid friction; rotational kinematics; rotational dynamics; equilibrium of  rigid bodies oscillations; gravitation liquid statics and liquid dynamics; Surface tension, velocity and hydrostatics (3 Credits).
PHY 102.1 Laboratory Practice I
MTH 110.1 Algebra and Trigonometry
Elementary notion of sets, subsets, union,  intersection, complements, venn diagrams.  Real numbers integers, Rational and irrationals.  Mappings of a set.  Real functions and their compositions.  Quadratic functions.  Cubic function.  Roots of quadratic and cubic functions.  Partial fractions.  Equations with complex roots complex number.  Geometric representation of complex numbers.  De Moirvers  Series and sequences.  Principles of mathematical induction Binomial theorem.  Trigonometry functions of angles.  Circular functions.  Addition theorems.  Double and half angles.  (Prerequisite:  O’ Level or SSCE Maths.)
MTH 120.1 Calculus
The straight line;  parallel and perpendicular lines; angles between straight line, the distance of points from a line; parametric equations; tangent and normal limits and continuity; differentiability, the derivative of simple algebraic functions; rules of differentiation maximum and minimum; integration as the inverse of differentiation; integration as the limit of a sum; areas under the curves; volumes (3 Credits)
CHM 130.1 General Chemistry I
Basic principles of matter and energy from the chemist’s point of  view.  A broadly based course suitable for students from various schools as well as those Faculty of science.  Topic to be covered will include atomic theory and molecular structure, stoichiometry, the period classification of the elements, atomic structure, chemical bonding, properties of gases, solids liquids and solutions; chemical equilibrium; chemical thermodynamics, electro-chemistry and chemical kinetics (3 Credits)
GES 102.2 Introduction to Logic and Philosophy,
A brief survey of the scope, notions, branches and problems of philosophy, symbolic logic; specific symbols in symbolic logic; conjunction rogation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements; law of thought; the method of deduction, using  rule of inference and bicondition; Quantitative theory. (2 Credits)
GES 101.2 Computer Appreciation and Application (2 Credits)  History of computers.  Generalization and classification of computer.  IPO model of a  computer Components of a computer system-hardware and software.  Software and its application.  Programme language Organization of data. Data computer techniques.  Introduction to computer networks.  Use of the keyboard as an input device.  DOS, Windows, Word processing, spread sheets. Application of computers in medicine, social science, humanities, education and management sciences.
FSB 102.2 General Biology II
Variety of organisms; principles of classification of organisms, systematic study of selected animals and plant groups; analysis of the flora and fauna of assigned habitats (3 Credit)
PHY 115.2 Heat, Light And Sound
Thermometry, calorimetry, and heat transfer; geometrical optics will include reflection of light at the plane and curved surfaces and optical instruments; properties and progression of sound waves; sound waves propagating in air columns; Doppler effect. (3 Credits).
GES 103.2 Nigeria: Peoples and culture
The course shall be introduction of students to the basic themes in early human development in Africa with emphasis on Nigeria through imperialism to independence; the themes of imperialism and underdevelopment in Africa; Colonial and neo-colonial development experience of Nigeria and other selected African countries.  It shall also involve dilative on the evolution of man  in Africa: early man in Nigeria and the cultural achievement and heritage; Early politics in Nigeria up to British conquest (2 Credits).
CHM 132 .2 Introduction to Principles of Organic Chemistry
Introduction to basic analytical chemistry.  The theory of  errors.  Statistical  treatment of data, sampling, gravimetric analysis and volumetric methods of analysis.  (3 Credits)
MCB 200.1  General Microbiology I
History and development of Microbiology; medical characteristic of microorganisms, growth and reproduction; principles of sterilization and disinfection; problems of ineffectivity; brief survey of microorganisms as friends and foes; antimicrobial agents and sensitivity tests  (3 Credits)
FSB 201.1  Cell Biology
 Modern concept relating to the cell; a study of the molecular organization, function and assembly of eukaryotic cell components, including membranes and membranous organelles, ribosomes, cilia and flagella, microtubules, microfilaments, nuleic and chromosomes, metabolic; energy; cellular dynamics.  (3 Credits)
BCH 210.1 General Biochemistry I
Acidity and alkalinity, pH and pH values and their effects on cellular activities; buffers; chemistry or amino Acids; proteins, and their derivatives, methods of isolation and identification; primary and secondary, tertiary and quartenary structures of proteins; determination and biochemical application of the structures, chemistry and structure of carbohydrates, their nomenclature; Chirality   (3 Credits)
CHM 260.1  Organic Chemistry I
Fundamental principles of chemical reactivity; chemical reations and synthesis of monofunctional compounds; reactions and mechanism of common reactions; stereochemistry
(3 Credits).
MTH 280.1  Introduction to Computer programming
Historical details of computers; principles of programming; programming with FORTRAN Language .  (3 Credits)
AEB 205.1  Animal Behaviour
Forms of behavior; reflexes and complex behaviuor; development of behaviour; adaptiveness and adaptability of behavior; importance of instinct and learning in animal Kingdom; evolution of behavioural patterns; cultural transmission of behavior; sexual isolation; imprinting; animal communication, migration and navigation; conflict behavior; Courtship; social behavior; animal associations and aggregations (2 Credits)
AEB 200.2 Lower Invertebrates
Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Helminths, Acoelomates and Pseudocoelomates; Gross, microscopic and ultrastructures, locomotion, nutrition, metabolism, growth, reproduction of Rhizopoda, flagellates, sporozoans and ciliates; ecology of protozoans; parasitic and symbiotic protozoa; morphology, anatomy, life histories and some aspects of the physiology and behavior of Turbellaria, Trematoda, nematode and Acanthocephala; brief discussion of Gastrotrihia, Rotifera, Kinorhynchia and Gnathostomulida.  (3 Credits)
PSB 206.2 Seedless Plants I
Morphology, range of structure, physiology and reproduction of algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes. (2 Credits)
AEB 201.2  Higher Invertebrates
Phylum Annelida: true coelomates, functions of coelom; Characteristics of the Phylu; Classofocatopm-{plychaetes, Oligochaetes, Hirudinea; Diversity in locomotion, reproduction, feeding and mode of life; Role of earthworms in soil.  Phylum Mollusca: Characteristics, torsion: advantages and disadvantages; Classification into classes (characteristics), sub-classes  (characteristics); Gastropod diversity: reproduction, locomotion, feeding, mode of life; Modification of the basic molluscan structure in Bivalvia; Modification in Cephalopods for Carnivorous life.  Class Crustacea:  Differences between Crustacea and other classes in the phylum Arthropoda; Classification into sub-classes (characteristics); Ada[tive radiation as they relate to habitats; Respiration, reproduction, locomotion, mode of life.  Phylum Echinodennata: Characteristics; Phylogenetic relationship to the chordates; Classification and characteristics of the major classes; Minor Phyla: Bryozoa, Chaetognatha: characteristics, adaptations to habitats and mode of life.  (3 Credits)
PSB 201.2 Structure and function of seed Plants
The main structural and functional features of the adult plant and its parts – leaves, stems, roots, flower and fruits.  These structures are treated in relation to functions such as plant/water relations, nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration, growth and development, reproduction and movement.  (3 Credits)
FSB 202.2 Genetics I
Heritability and non-heritable characteristics; Mendelian genetics; Gene interactions, quantitative genetics; Extra-chromosomal inheritance; sex determinations, linkage and recombination in eukaryotes; introduction to recombination in prokaryotes; chromosome morphology, variations in polidy and level and chromosome bahviour.   (3 Credits)
FSB 203.2  Biological Techniques
Procedure for collection, identification and preservation of biological specimens; sampling techniques; wax embedding techniques; photometry, Colorimetry, Chromatograph, Eletrophoresis and conductometry.  Experimental design and analysis.  (3 Credits)
FSB 204.2  (General Ecology)
Ecological factors and cycles; ecosystems and energy flow; water and nutrient budgets; population attributes (treat to include analysis of variance and organization and gynamics of ecological communities in soil, fresh water and sea); Succession and climax  Ecological methods; Man and the biosphere; Increase in human population and its consequences. (3Credits)
MTH 264.2 Statistics for Biological and Agricultural Sciences
Use of statistical method in biology and agriculture; frequency distributions; laws of probability; the binomial, Poisson and normal probability distributions; estimation and test of hypothesis; the binomial design of simple agricultural and biological experiments; analysis of variance and covariance; simple regression and correlation; contingency tables; some non-parametic tests (Pre-requisite:
MTH 120.1 OR 110.1 (3 Credits).
GES 300.1
AEB 300.1 Ichthyology and Hydrobiology
Physical and chemical properties of both inland and seawater; hydrobiology and water cycle; properties of natural and man-made lakes; thermal properties and stratification; hydrobiological cycles; physic-chemical and morphometric variables of inland waters; biogeochemical cycling of essential nutrients; Freshwater organisms including bacteria; fungi aglae, plankton, macrophytes and macro invertebrates.  (3 Credits)
AEB 301.1 Introduction to Parasitology
The nature of parasitism; history of parasitology; types of parasites and hosts; evolution of parasitism; host specificity; ecology, life cycles, pathology, and control of protozoal and helminth parasites; parasitic diseases of man and animals;host parasite interactions. (3 Credits).
AEB 302.1 Protochordates and Chordates
General Introduction; characteristics of phylum chordate; the invertebrate chordates; Urochordates and Cephalochordates; general features and biology-nutrition, excretion, internal transport, nervous system reproduction;  Subphylum Vertebrate:  Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles, Birds and Mammals (general characteristics, daptations, evolution) Primates, nonhuman and human, primate groups; human characteristics, evolution, Apes and hominids; the ape men, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens (3 Credits).
FSB 303.1 Population And Production Ecology
The concept of population; characteristics of population; the nature regulation of plant numbers; inventory of plant production processes, thermodynamics and factors of production in plant communities, gross and primary production; measurement of production (below/above ground and litter) in various communities aquatic rangelands and forests; assessment of animal use (range and brousing) of plant production; vegetation management for production ion sustained-yield basis, (3Credits)
AEB 381.1 Environmental and Conversation Science
Composition of soil Aquatic and aerial environmental; Sources of pollution; kinds of pollutants, Species protection; Biotopes; Biosphere reserves, restoration ecology, sustainable conservation; Translocation, re-introduction, re-establishment; Succession,
AEB 384.1 Environmental Assessment and Monitoring
Phases in environmental assessment predictive monitoring; Interpretation of environmental effects during and after development activity; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA0; Impact Assessment Network Simple Models in Environmental Assessment Phases in Ecological Risk Assessment, Limitations. Biological Monitoring.   Marine (Near Coastal/Brackish (Wetland), Ecosystems, forest Ecosystems, Agro-ecosystems freshwater Ecosystem, Arid Ecosystem Bioindicators –Monitor, Sentinel, Indicator  Species Automated Biomonitors, Biomarkers-Types, Limitations, Advantages.  Comparison of biological and chemical assessment Environmental Forecasting.
AEB 380.2 Industrial Experience (SIWES)
Students are allowed to embark on a 6-month industrial training in the Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), in the Second Semester of the third year of the programme.  At the end of the Scheme, students shall present Seminar on the knowledge and skill acquired which will be  typed, bound and properly documented and two copies submitted to the SIWES  Unit coordinator after the  oral presentation within four weeks of the first semester  fourth year (9 credits)
Beginning from the Second Semester of the Third Year the student is assigned to anyone of the special options:
• Entomology and Pest Management
• Animal Health and Physiology
• Parasitology
• Fisheries and Hydrobiology
• Environmental Biology
With the exception of courses taken by all students, all fourth year courses are listed under the Option that offers them only, so as to avoid repetition.
First Semester AEB 480.1 Project Implementation and Evaluation
Types of project, project planning cost benefit analysis. Project evaluation, project reporting, project execution, feasibility of environmental project decision making, project planning, clientele participation, associations and co-operatives, community participation (2 Credits)
AEB 481.1 Terrestrial Arthropods
Characteristic of the phylum Arthropoda and the major terrestrial classes –Insecta, Arachinida, Myriapoda.  Morphology and anatomy of the insect.  The integument.  Physiology of the insect – Locomotion, feeding, nutrition, circulation, reproduction, melamorphasis, moulting, growth etc. Diversity in the other arthropodan classes (3 Credits)
AEB 482.1 Animal Physiology
Introduction:  System Blood and Body Fluids, Respiration, Cardiovascular System, Kidney and Excretion, co-ordination and Integration Sensory Physiology, Central Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous System Muscle Physiology, Neuromuscular Transmission; Growth and Development; Endocrinology and Reproduction (3 Credits)
Second Semester
AEB 481.2 Seminar
Library literature project on any approved topic in the candidate’s option.  The seminar will be typed bound and properly documented and 2 copies submitted to the department after the oral presentation (3 Credits).
AEB 482.0 Research Project
An experimental investigation of an animal or environmental biology problem in the candidate’s area or option under the supervision of an academic staff member assigned by the Department.  Typed and bound copies of the project report will be submitted to the department before its assessment by the external examiner (6 Credits)
First Semester
AEB 451.1 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy and Physiology
Vertebrate plan and phylogeny, adaptation and evolution. General and integrated principles of vertebrate structure and morphology, vertebrate skeletal adaptations to life in water, land and air.  Comparative anatomy and physiology of vertebrate respiratory structure, comparative feeding, comparative gaseous exchange, development of the urino-genital system, osmo-regulation in different habitats (water and land) salt and water balance, thermoregulation, endocrine control of physiological system (3 Credit).
AEB 453.1 Pests and Diseases in Animal Health
Arthropod pests of animals insects and acarine pests; their effects, and control.  The use of pesticides and biological control, livestock heath, features of diseases of animals (2 Credits).
AEB 454.1 Histology and Histochemistry
Introduction to histology.
Types of tissues, epithelia, glands, blood and lymph, blood cell formation connective tissue, cartilage, the skin, bone, bone formation and development muscular and nervous tissue; the spleen, hypophysis thymus, histology of the Gastro-intestinal system, interaction of preservation with tissues interaction of stains with cellular components (3Credits)
AEB 470.1 Nigeria Feeds Feedstuffs and Animal Care
Classification of foods, food-stuffs and feed supplement.  An extensive coverage of the chemistry and nutritive values of succulent food stuff, concentrate feeds (cereals and some Nigerian grasses and legume species.  Consideration of methods of their biological value evaluation.  Role of nutrients in development, growth maturation and ageing.  Nutritional disorders.  Lab. Safety precautions; lab. Accidents and prevention.  Animal housing, feeding, watering; Ethics in animal experiments, Animal health care.
Second Semester
AEB 455.2  Patho-physiology
Abnormalities in somatic cell replication, cancer, agranulocytosis,  Leukamia; disorders in circulatory system; blood clothing; cardiac function; pathologies in lung function; abnormalities in acid/base balance; renal diseases, hypertension.  The brain disorder in motor  and behavioural functions; disorders of vision and auqition; gastro-intestinal disorders; abnormalities in body temperature regulation; abnormalities in endocrine function;  disorders in male and female sexual function. (3 Credits)
AEB 456.2  Environmental Physiology of animals
Physiological adaptation of animals to different environments.  The nature and levels of adaptation fundamental mechanism of adaptation, problem of size and stale, water, ions and osmotic physiology, Animal water balance, osmoregulation and excretion, metabolism and  energy supply, temperature and its effects, marine life, shoreline and estuaries, fresh water, terrestrial life, extreme terrestrial habitats, parasitic habitats.  (3 Credits)
AEB 457.2 Developmental and Reproductive Physiology
Modes of reproduction: sexual, asexual: reproductive structures: reproductive hormones and reproductive cycles: primordial germ cells: spermatogenesis and oogenesis, ovulation and fertilization; blastocyst formation, implantation, sex determination: maintenance of pregnancy; fetal growth; parturition and lactation; pregnancy losses and birth defects; sexually-transmitted diseases; growth, maturation and puberty; senescence. Artificial control of reproduction: artificial insemination; applied animal reproduction and management eg. Grasscutter production; avian reproduction.  (3 Credits).
AEB 458.2  Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering
Biological macromolecules: protein, carbohydrates, lipids; RNA, DNA. 1  the genetic code and protein synthesis; Gene function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Recombinant DNA:  restriction enzymes, vectors, analysis of cloned gene sequence;  Genetic engineering in animals: transgenic animals. 1   the human genome project.  DNA probes and genetic disorders:  examples. 1  Synthesis of human insulin.  (2 Credits)
Electives:  Anyone of the following:
AEB 441.2 Immunology and Immuno-pathology
Effectors of immunity, control of immunity, immunological tolerance, immunity and infections diseases, immune-diagnosis of parasites infections, principles of immunopatholopgy anaphylaxis, cytotoxicity , immune complex disorders, hypersensitivity reactions, allergies, immune-deficiency disease, auto-immune disorders.  (3 Credits).
AEB 459.2  Pharmacological Animal Physiology
The study of aspects of the interactions of chemical and natural substance with animal tissues.  Significance of some animals in pharmacological/physiological studies e.g. coelenterates, snakes, scorpion, some fishes etc.  Luminescence in animals. Drug administration routes in animals to examine physiological effects.   Mechanisms of drug action and the effect of chemicals/drugs in different animals. Basic Drug-receptor interactions. Correlation of structure with biological activity.  Selectivity of drugs in animals.  Time course of drug action.  Effect of poisons/toxins on the physiology of animals.  Principles of selective toxicity.  Biological control.  Acquired resistance to drugs-loss of selectivity.  Isolation and purification of biologically active compounds from animals.  Bioassay methods.  (3 Credits).
First Semester
AEB 410.1  Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance
Arthropods of medical and Veterinary importance.  Direct effects-myiasis, allergies, environmization, etc.   Indirect effect – roles as intermediate hosts and Vectors.  Types of transmission-mechanical and biological.  Biology, mode of life, behavior, etc.  of these arthropods.  Their roles in the epidemiology of human (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, yellow fever, Onchocerciasis, lymphatic ficariasis etc.) and epidootiology of animal (anaplasmesis, babesiosis, Est Coast Fever, etc. ) diseases.
AEB 411.1 Arthropods and Vertebrate Pests of Field Crops & Stored Products
Major arthropod pests of vegetable crops (tomatoes, okra, onions, melon).  Arthropod pests of legumes, Cereals, tuber crops, and cash crops (oil palm, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, cashew).  For each group of crops, cuss nature of damage, life history and distribution.  Arthropod pests of stored cereals, legumes oil seeds, timber, clothes, hides, skins and fish biology, bionomics, behavior, population dynamics.  Adaptation to storage ecosystem.  Impact of type of  storage system on pest population – growth rates, and role of pheromones in post biology.  Types of Vertebrate pests (rodents and other small mammals, large mammals-wild and domesticated, birds, reptiles etc) of field crops and stored products.  Aspects of biology, behavior, seasonal activity cycles as they related to damage.  Nature of damage (direct and indirect) to field crops and stored products.  (3 Credits)
AEB 412.1  Arachnology
Characteristics of the class.  Classification, scorpionide, Araneida, Acrina, etc. sub-orders of the Acrina-Mesostigmata, population dynamics.  Diversity in habitat, niches, mode of life etc. Adaptations .  (3 Credits)
AEB 421.1  Management of Arthropod Pests in Human and Animal Health Crops and Stored Products.
Definition of pests, Causes of pest outbreaks, pest resurgence, monitoring pest populations in the field and storage.  Management technique cultural, Biological, Crop resistance, genetic, chemical, and behavioural manipulations.  Integrated Pest Management (IPM) –determination and application of economic injury level and economic threshold.  Management/control of vertebrate pests of  field crops and stored products.  Practicals in agricultural Pests management.  Formulation and application of insecticides: dusts, granules, wettable powders emulsifiable concentrates, aerosols, fumigants, fogs, smokes, and baits.  Methods of insecticide application to the soil, water, seed treatment, and application to crops.   Equipment for application of insecticides, types of nozzle and nozzle calibration,  knapsack sprayer.  (3 Credits).
AEB 422.2  Aquatic Entomology
General morphoplogy of aquatic insects – head, Torax, and Abdomen collecting, sampling, and methods for aquatic insects, Aquatic insect respiration, habitat, life history and behavioural adaptations.  Ecology and distribution of aquatic insects.  General classification and key to the orders of aquatic insects.  Aquatic collembolan, hamiptera, trichoptera.  (3 Credits)
AEB 480.1 Project Implementation and Evaluation
Types of project, project-planning, cost benefit analysis, project evaluation, project reporting project execution, feasibility of environmental project; decision making; project planning, clientele participation, associations and co-operatives, community participation.  (2 Credits)
First Semester
AEB 483.1 Techniques in Environmental Studies
Techniques in environmental microbiology, techniques in faunal and floral studies, population studies of fauna, Dispersion.  Ecological diversity and measurements, diversity indices, models, population dynamics.  ( 3 Credits).
AEB 484.1  Environmental Health
Common environmental hazards, their causes and sources; Industrial, laboratory and field hazards.  Communicable disease and biological hazards, pests hazards.  Pollution monitoring, a re pollution, insecticides, herbicides, nematicides, noise pollution, radiation ecology, oil and petroleum-related pollution, prediction and management of hazards.  Global distribution of hazards.  Pest-hazard operation-rescue, emergency services, pest trauma services etc.  Environmental laws as they affect human health.  (3 Credits).
AEB 485.1  Eco-toxicology/toxinology
Classification of pollutants (petroleum, industrial effluents, gasses, insecticides, herbicides, sewage, nematicides etc) General environmental protection, protection in a oil and gas industry.  Effects of pollutants in populations, communities and ecosystems.  Transport of pollutants in the environment through food chains and aerial pathways; biological amplification.  Determination and quantification of pollutant levels.   Production of ecological effects within organisms and on ecosystems.  Cause-and-effects relationships that control levels and variability of pollution concentration over time and space.  Dose-response curves and, factors affecting them.  Regulation of new chemical monitoring of named species.  Case studies.  Effects of toxins of natural products.  (3 Credits)
AEB  486.1 – Biodiversity, Forest and Wildlife Management
Biodiversity – definition, biological evolution, Environmental factors that effect diversity, Reasons for preserving diversity Evaluation, numeric diversity measures, multivariate techniques and graphical methods, diversity indices.  Biodiversity differences in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.  Land resources assessment and classification.  Land-use Planning.  The Landscape Concept.   Forests and Forestry.  Sustainable Forestry.  Approaches to Forest management Parks and Preserves as Islands.   Wildlife species in Nigeria and their management.  Official Categories of Threat.  Distributional records – Climate mapping, migrant species, fine scale maps, Geographic Information Systems (CIS).  Habitat improvement, game farming, artificial, stocking, preservation of breeding stocks by means of game laws.  Traditional single species.  Wildlife management Improved Approaches to Wildlife management (3 Credits)
AEB 406.1 Evolution and Zoogeography
Evolution theory, Darwinism, Origin of life; Proofs of evolution; Geologic time scales; Principles of evolution: natural and artificial selection, hybridization, mutation.  Species concept and speciation: Zoogeography of the world (3 Credits)
Second Semester:
AEB 487.2 Environmental Policies and Laws
National and international environmental protection-policies and laws; international concepts.  Green house index as globalecological indicator, ecological forecasting.  Nigeria policies and laws.  FEPA Act Cap. 126.  Selections 7,8,10, w 29,30 and 36.  Oil and navigable water cap 337.  Pest control of produce Act Cap.349.  Harmful wastes (special provision)  Act Cap 165 (3 Credits)
AEB 488.2 Waste Management
Biological and non-biological wastes, strategies of waste management and control treatment of degradable wastes. Waste management in urban and rural organisms associated with waste management.  Engineering methods for waste managements Assessment of management approaches (3Credits)
AEB 489.2 Environmental Biotechnology
Use of biotechnology principles in pollution control and clean up Biotechnology in media contamination.  Enzymes in waste treatment anaerobic treatment of hazardous waste sewage treatment, biodeterioration, bioremediation, biopreservation, production of biogas.  Biotechnology in energy production.  Biotechnology in environmental management. (3 Credits)
PSB 405.2 Conservation and Development of Natural Resources
Analysis of the concept of conservation, development and natural resources.  Classification of natural  resources.  Abiotic and biotic resources, stock and flow resources, and rationale for conservation.  Ecology of natural resources.  Inventory techniques for bio-natural resources conservation approaches for abiotic and biotic resources.  Development and management of bio-natural resources  human communities, grasslands, forests, fisheries and wildlife.  Conservation of our bio-physical environments –urban and rural (3 Credits).
PSB 415.2 Bioremediation
Revegetation methods, Soil amelioration methods, identification and preparation of potential plants (algae, propagates and plant detoxification mechanisms on soil, air, and water environments, physiological conditions governing decomposition of pollutants, assessment of toxicity levels (lethal doses) of pollutants, establishment of plant monitors and water sanitizers, uptake mechanism and bioaccumulation by plant cells, roots, foliage (3 Credits)
PSB 418.2 Aquatic and Terrestrial Pollution Biology
Water as an environment physical properties of water.  Thernal stratification, Biogelicyles of nutrients, -carbon, sulphur and  phosphorus cycles.  Algae as major primary producers in water. Classification of aquatic macrophytes, biological role of aquatic macrophytes in relation to water pollution, sources of water pollution –industrial effluents, sewage, crude oil pollution, agricultural, etc (3 Credits)
First Semester
AEB 471.1 Fish Diseases and Parasites
Identification, morphology, taxonomy, life history of fish parasites.  The ecological and pathological effects RCFE of parasites and diseases of fish.  Epidemiology of parasite populations in water body, Common bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and their control.  Other enemies of fish.  International restrictions biding the transportation of fish across country boundaries.  Fish ponds and public health (2 Credits).
AEB 472.1 Management of Coastal Systems, Ornamental Fisheries & Fishing Gear Technology
Sustainable use of our Coastal resources.  Effects of Climatic Changes on the Coastal ecosystem, erosion, sea water intrusion and flooding, Conservation Strategies, policies, national and international laws of the seas and Coastal regions.  Ornamental fish breeding, nutrition and management.  Design and management of aquaria.  Study of types of gears and fishing crafts. As properties of the materials used/construction of traps and nets.  Assessment of efficiency of fishing gear.  (3 Credits)
AEB 473.1 Fish Biology and Natural History
The gross external and internal anatomy of a typical bony and typical cartilaginous fish.  The different types of  anatomical systems and basic functions of each system of organs in the fish embryology important fish e.g. Tilapia Clarias, and mullet.  Ecology of fishes with special reference in distribution and natural history and obtaining maximum returns from fishery. resources.  Characteristics of the aquatic environment, organic production in aquatic fauna and flora –algal blooms and eutrophicational plankton, and benthos, biomass assessment.  Food and feeding habits of fishes, feed and habitat selection, population, niche concept, food chains.  Reproductive behavior and life cycles of some selected species.
AEB 475.1 Oceanography
Study of the temperature and chemistry of sea water.  Biological activities and their distribution.  Salinity, chlorinity currents, tides, waves and radiation in the sea, conductivity, diffusion, viscosity and dynamics of sea water.  Distribution and behavior of plankton.  Brackish water conditions and fauna.  Interrelationship of, and physiological adaptations of marine organisms.
AEB 474.1 Productivity of Natural & Man-made Water Bodies
Energy flow in the ecosystems.  Energy and the food chain.  Biogeochemical cycle in the ecosystem.  Measurement of productivity of community structure. (2 Credits)
AEB 476.2 Aquaculture & Fish Processing
Aims and types of aquaculture/Mariculture, history, Status of aquaculture in Nigeria Principles of aquaculture; lining and pond fertilization, food supply, growth rate and food conversion, Selectionpf Culture Species, introduction of exotic Species and their implications.  Stocking and harvesting practices,  Economic Consideration of aquaculture Maintenance of public health aspects.  Principles and methods of preservation, packing.  Storage and quality Control.  Traditional Versus modern preservation techniques (3 Credits)
Second Semester
AEB 477.2 Fish Population Dynamics and Modeling
Fishing effort and catch per effort.  Population estimation, age and growth.  Natality mortality.  Computation yields from given recruitment.  Stock assessment.  (2 Credits)
AEB 478.2 Fisheries Policy and Management Practice
Fisheries institution.  Conservation strategies policy and laws of Nigeria.  International laws of the sea.  (2 Credits)
AEB 479.2 Climatology and Biogeography
The principles, aims and scope of climatology and biogeography.  The elements and controls of climate and weather and the dynamics of the earth’s atmosphere Radiation and heating of the atmospheric systems, atmospheric moisture, the dynamic of pressure and wind systems, condensation and precipitation processes, seasonal variation in temperature, day length, radiation, rainfall and evapo-transpiration.  Equipment and maintenance of standard meterological stations.  The tropical climate, relation between climate and freshwater ecosystem.  Some of pollution biology.  Treatment of domestic and industrial sewage.  (2 Credits)
Fish Semester
AEB 430.1 Ecology, Taxonomy and Diagnoses of Parasites
Parasitism as an ecological relationship, host finding and selection; invasion mechanisms, site selection; habitat selection and habitat problems of parasites; behavioural aspects of parasite ecology.  Systematic and Taxonomic diversity of parasites including Protozoan and helminthic parasites of veterinary and medical   importance.  Diagnosis, Pathology, Treatment and Control of Parasites infections.  (3 Credits)
AEB 432.1 Epidemiology and Pathology
Scope and application of epidemiology, epidemiology methods, counting diseases, population and samples, epidemiological of findings, investigation of epidemics, application of epidemiological techniques.  The concept of community diagnosis (CD)Community Diagnosis in practice, demography, vital statistics, socio-economic status, nutritional status, family health, the environment, use of health service, Tests and community diagnosis, use of CD in health service.  Tests and community diagnosis, use of CD in health care planning and training programmes, drug abuse, accidents, (3 Credits)
AEB 433.1  Nematology
Soil and plant nematology. Ecology and bionomics of plant parasitic nematodes.  Life, cycle morphology and mode of transmission of plant nematodes of vegetable and root crops in Nigeria Crop damage by nematodes and food production in Nigeria. Control of nematode parasites of crops-chemical biological and cultural methods control methods. Case studies on specific vegetable and root crops. Soil and plant nematodes.  Ecology and bionomics of plant parasitic nematodes.  Crop damage.  (3Credits)
AEB 421.1  Management of Arthropod Pests in Human & Animal Health
Second Semester
AEB 440.2 Applied Parasitology and Biochemistry of Parasites
Principles of applied parasitology, parasites and PHC programme, impact of socio-economic projects on parasite transmission.  Human factors and human behabiour related transmission of parasites water, health and sanitation.  Chemstherapy of parasites including principles, modes of action of antiprotozoal drugs and common anthelminthics.  Physiology snf Biochemistry of parasites. (3 Credits)
AEB 441.2 Immunology and Immuno-Pathology
Effectors of immunity, control of immunity, immunological tolerance, immunity and infectious diseases, immune-diagnosis of parasites infections, principles of immunopathology anaphylaxis, cytotoxicity, immune complex disorders, hypersensitivity reactions, allergies, immune-deficiency disease, auto-immune disorders (3 Credits)